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The Basics of Pest Control

Pest control aims to reduce pest numbers or damage to an acceptable level without harming people or the environment. This usually involves monitoring and using management strategies such as traps, barriers, pheromones, and juvenile hormones.

Pest Control

Prevention methods include cleaning and sealing entry points, such as cracks and crevices. Organic pest controls such as nematodes (the microscopic worms that eat the root systems of harmful insects) are also helpful. For professional help, contact Trapping USA Animal Removal & Pest Control.

Pests cause costly damage to homes, buildings and their contents. They also contaminate food and threaten human health. Pests can be controlled using a variety of methods. Prevention is the most effective approach, because it prevents an infestation from developing in the first place. In addition, it is cheaper than control measures that are used when a pest problem already exists. Prevention includes monitoring and inspection of facilities, the use of best practices to reduce conducive conditions, and regular treatment for pests.

In residential settings, pests enter homes through the smallest cracks and crevices. These include window and door frames, the space around vents, and gaps in wall cladding or siding. Sealing these spaces can prevent pest entry. It is also advisable to keep trash in sealed containers and not allow it to pile up, since this attracts pests. It is also important to store food in sealed containers.

For business and industrial premises, pests are drawn to the facility primarily for food and water, but they can also cause contamination by disease-causing microorganisms (e.g., bacterial pathogens or intestinal worms), physical contamination of food products and packaging by rodent droppings and insect parts, and structural damage by chewing and burrowing. Sanitation can help prevent pest problems by improving cleanliness, removing food and water sources, and reducing harborage sites.

Monitoring and inspection is a key aspect of pest control, because it allows you to identify and respond to pest activity early. It also helps you determine whether a pest is a nuisance and can be tolerated or needs to be managed. Correctly identifying the pest and knowing its biology and environment allows you to select the best management strategy.

There are a variety of pest control methods available, including physical traps and netting, biological methods, and chemical solutions. Biological methods generally involve living organisms and take time to work. They are less harmful to humans and the environment than chemicals, but they may require more effort from you. Chemical solutions are typically easier to find and use, but they can pose hazards to humans and the environment when improperly used.


Pests can be controlled in a variety of ways. Biological, mechanical, physical and regulatory controls work either directly or indirectly to reduce pest populations to an acceptable level. Biological pest control uses living organisms – predators, parasitoids, and herbivores – to suppress insect pests to a lower level. The organisms are sometimes bred and then released in small batches or in large numbers to augment the natural enemies already present. This is known as classical biological control.

Other organisms that may control pests include nonliving organisms such as pathogens, which can infect a host and kill it, or the fungi that produce decomposers that break down organic material, reducing the available food for pests. Other natural enemies of pests include animals such as birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals that prey on them or their eggs. In addition, a number of other organisms – such as bacteria and viruses – can attack and kill them.

Weather conditions and topography limit the spread of many pests. Mountains and bodies of water restrict the ability of insects to fly, while soil moisture and other environmental factors influence pests’ growth and reproduction.

Some varieties of plants, wood, and other materials resist certain pests better than others. Using resistant types of these materials helps keep the pest population below harmful levels.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the most desirable method for controlling pests. The basic principles of IPM are preventing the introduction of pests, practicing good sanitation and maintaining healthy plant and animal populations to reduce their food sources. IPM also stresses educating people to change their behavior so that pests are less likely to be attracted to or find their way into places where they are not wanted.

In addition, mechanical and physical controls can be used to kill or block a pest or make the environment unsuitable for it. These methods may include traps for rodents, removing or preventing the use of shelter by the pest, mowing to prevent nesting, steam sterilization of the soil to kill pathogens, or screens and barriers to exclude insects from buildings.


Identifying the pest — weed, disease, insect, mite, vertebrate or other organism — is one of the first steps in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. This step includes discovering basic information about the pest such as its life cycle and the conditions that favor its presence, so you can determine whether to control it or tolerate it. Correct identification also helps select the best control tactics and time them to treat the pest when it is most susceptible.

Some pests can be recognized by their damage or signs they leave behind. For example, gnawed wires or chewed wood are telltale signs of rodent activity, while cockroach droppings are readily identifiable by their sticky or greasy residue. Other pests, such as weeds, change their appearance with different stages of growth or the weather. Identifying them correctly is key to knowing whether you can manage them with cultural or physical methods instead of chemical controls.

A pest’s life cycle, behavior, habitat requirements, food sources and reproduction habits are all factors that affect its management needs. IPM strategies take all of these into consideration, allowing you to determine whether you need to control the pest, and how to do so without harming beneficial organisms or your environment.

If you decide to control a pest, the first steps involve preventing an infestation from occurring. This includes a meticulous examination of the property to look for cracks and other openings that could serve as entry points, and sealing them promptly. In addition, regular inspections of interior spaces should focus on areas most likely to attract pests such as kitchens and basements. You should also consider eliminating the pest’s living space by removing weeds or other invasive plants and blocking access to water sources. If possible, consider using a non-chemical deterrent such as repellents or visual barriers to discourage the pest. Finally, if necessary, use least-toxic chemical controls. These can include the removal of contaminated soil, the application of organic mulches, and spraying the ground or foliage with horticultural oils to disrupt feeding and breathing activities.


When pests are found, control methods are applied to reduce numbers to an acceptable level and prevent them from increasing again. Eradication is not often a goal in outdoor situations, but may be possible for invasive species such as Mediterranean fruit fly and gypsy moths. In indoor areas, eradication is more of a focus because pests can cause significant damage and health problems.

Control measures can be mechanical or physical, blocking pests from entering a space or making it unsuitable for them to survive and reproduce. Examples include traps for rodents, steam sterilization of soil for disease management, and barriers such as screens to keep birds or insects away. Chemical controls include sprays and baits. When using pesticides, it is important to follow the product labels and not apply more than the recommended amount. Applying excess pesticide can be harmful to humans and pets, and it will not improve results.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an ecosystem-based approach to pest control that uses monitoring, preventive tactics, cultural practices, and manipulation of the environment to manage pests without using dangerous chemicals. It is particularly effective for preventing pests before they become a problem.

To be proactive, perform routine interior and exterior inspections to identify and correct potential pest entryways into your home. Check windows, doors, siding and the roof for cracks or holes. Keep garbage cans tightly closed, and dispose of trash regularly. Clean up food and cooking utensils, and remove any other items from the kitchen benches that could attract pests.

Use a high quality sealant around the baseboards and drainpipes to stop pests from crawling underneath. Place traps or baits in places where they are not likely to be tampered with, such as along skirting boards. Ensure that traps and baits are out of reach of children and pets, and don’t place them where they can be retrieved easily.

During the time that pesticides are working, avoid food and cooking in the affected area. Also, take care not to spill any cooking utensils or liquids that could be splashed onto the walls and ceiling. If you have pets, consider boarding them during treatment or keeping them at a friend’s house so they are not exposed to the pesticides.